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Essay college topics

An essay is a short literary piece on a subject. A person’s first exposure to this kind of literary work would be the five paragraph essays that students are required to work on. These kinds of essays are a highly structured form with the following parts:

  • An introduction that presents the main idea.
  • Three paragraphs for the body where arguments are presented. Each paragraph would contain an idea with evidence that supports the main idea presented in the introduction.
  • A conclusion that restates the main idea and gives a quick summary of the supporting points.

Here are some essay college topics on adolescents:

  • Stress and its effects on young people today
  • The process of applying to college
  • Solutions to prevent high-school drop outs
  • Should the secondary school curriculum be increased or reduced
  • Should contraceptives be available in high schools

Essay college topic on Advertising:

  • False advertising
  • Political campaign advertising and its effects
  • Sexism in the media
  • To what extent should the government control advertising
  • Ads for tobacco and alcohol

Essay college topics on Minorities:

  • Should colleges have admissions quotas
  • How has the Afro-American youth changed in recent years
  • Racism in the courtroom / in prisons
  • The verdict of Scott Peterson / Martha Stewart / Michael Jackson
  • The impact of Latin Americans as the largest minority in the US

Essay college topics on Americana:

  • The high costs of funerals or / the social pressures of planning a funeral
  • Who benefits from the lottery or does it exploit the poor
  • A nationalized health care system
  • The disappearing middle class in America

Essay college topics on Social Problems:

  • Censorship in art / in the media
  • Should convicted criminals be eligible for social welfare
  • Mandatory HIV testing or testing for drugs
  • Poverty fosters crime…Yes or no?
  • Hunting (deer, birds) is necessary in some cases

Essay college topics on Transportation:

  • 25. Should airlines be nationalized
  • 26. The car as a status symbol
  • 27. The minimum age or the ideal age to get a driver’s license
  • 28. The impact of the “chunnel” tunnel connecting English to the European
  • continent
  • 29. The effects of increasing or eliminating speed limits on the highways

How to make APA citation to dissertation?

A list of references should be drawn upon the basis of state standards (GOSTs) in force in the Russian Federation, which relate to bibliographic records and descriptions, as well as regulate the design of bibliographic references. To include in the bibliography all, the sources used in the work is a prerequisite for paperwork or a thesis. How to issue a thesis in the list of references according to GOST can be found in the examples below.

The bibliographic description of the source is always carried out according to the rules detailed in GOST. These rules specify the order of bibliographic information, the composition of the elements of the description. This is necessary to identify or obtain the characteristics of the document.

The dissertation description includes the following areas:

title area – the main title consists of the author’s surname and initials and the dissertation topic;

in square brackets optional information about the material (text or electronic resource);

after the colon, additional information relating to the title is indicated: what is this dissertation, specialty, when it is defended, when approved, this information is optional;

a slash indicates the responsibility information, i.e. who made the greatest contribution to the creation of the document – the author of the thesis;

then “. -” point – dash, which means the end of the title area and the beginning of the publication area, there is indicated the city and year of protection

physical description – the number of pages;

standard number area – the international or inventory number of the dissertation may be indicated by a dash.

More detailed explanations on the design, placement of punctuation marks must be learned from the standard.

Examples APA citation dissertation

A reference refers to bibliographic information about a source that is cited or mentioned in the text of another document. In the case of exact quotation, the phrase is taken in quotes, and the reference to the source in the list of references or a direct link is placed next to it.

Inline links are placed in parentheses next to the quote. In the case of use of dissertation materials, the author, the name of the dissertation, information about the branch of science, the date of defense, place of defense is always indicated in them.

Example 1:

Author, I.I. Title. [Text]: dis. … Cand. ist Sciences: 07.00.02: it is protected 25.01.12: utv. 05/25/12 / Author Ivan Ivanovich. – M., 2012. – 220 p. – Bibliography: p.202-213. – 04200201565.

Example 2:

Author, I.V. Title [Text]: dis. … Cand. econ Sciences: 08.00.13: it is protected 10.02.14: utv. 06/21/14 / Author Igor Vladimirovich. – M., 2014. – 254 p. – Bibliogr .: pp.220-230. – 04200204433.

Literature Review

How to make an ideal literature review in research paper?

As a rule, if a literature review of research paper becomes part of the introduction, then it does not exceed three thousand characters and describes only key works that are the theoretical framework of the study. Take a look at this example. This is a literature review from a bachelor thesis in cultural studies. In it, the author describes two articles that contain opposing points of view on the problem considered in the study. The author does not attempt to retell these articles in detail, because it includes a literature review in the introduction. Below we describe the two most illustrative sample of literature review in research.

1. Timofey Dmitriev (2013) “This is not the army: national military construction in the USSR in the context of Soviet cultural and national politics (1920–1930s)”. The article analyzes the pragmatics of abandoning the policy of “indigenization”, which was related to the fact that the Soviet army could not function effectively without a single language: draftees from different regions of the USSR, being in the same army, not only did not understand each other because that only the languages ​​of the titular nations were taught in their schools, but they could not carry out the orders of the military authorities.

Find an important fundamental job. It may be the theoretical framework of your research. For example, if you are writing about the Venetian carnival, then a literary review should begin with a description of the book by the researcher of the culture of Mikhail Bakhtin “Creativity of Francois Rabelais and the folk culture of the Middle Ages”.

Make sure that the papers that you want to review in the literature review are relevant to the topic of your research. You can look at another samples of literature review in research papers. You should not include something that is very poorly connected with your research, just to gain more volume, or because you are well acquainted with these works. When you describe some work, be sure to explain why it is necessary for your research.

It is not necessary to completely rewrite in your own words the fragments of texts that you include in the literature review. Highlight the main points and describe (but in detail) only them.

Follow the logic of the text. Ideally, if each work used in literature review is somehow related to the one you described before it. You can also combine the described sources and literature into groups by content, time of writing, the position of the authors, etc.


How to cite to a dissertation?

Citing to other people’s dissertations and dissertation abstracts in the text of one’s own dissertation is possible and necessary since this demonstrates the knowledge of the applicant of a scientific degree in his area of ​​competence. However, it should be remembered that not all dissertations placed in the RSL are protected. Indeed, in the RSL or on the Internet one can find unprotected dissertations as well as dissertations with 100% plagiarism. So, it should be learnt by themselves how to cite a dissertation. Therefore, one should be very careful in using materials of dissertation research and not accept them as the ultimate truth.

Reference to dissertations and dissertation abstracts is necessary for accordance with the state standard – GOST R 7.0.5-2008 “BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCE”: General requirements and rules for drafting, which entered into force on 01/01/2009. At the same time, links can be subscripts, taken down from the text of the document (in a footnote) – they are made out as a note, taken down from the text of the document and over the text, taken out of the text of the document or its part (in the callout). If the link is brought to a specific fragment of the text of the document, the reference number and the pages on which the object of the link is placed are indicated in the reference.

An example of over-text references to a dissertation abstract:

Researchers S.A. Dobrynin [1, p. 10] and L.E. Slutsky [2, p. 11] indicated the genesis of the family as a socio-economic institution.


1. Dobrynina O.A. The problem of creating a favorable socio-psychological climate of the family: (For comment workers-metallurgists): Author’s abstract. Dis. … Cand. Psychol. Sciences: 19.00.05; [Place of defense: God. Acad. ex. them. S. Ordzhonikidze]. – M., 1993. – 18 p.

2. Slutsky L.E. The development of small business in the modern Russian economy: author. diss. … Dr. Econ. Sciences: 08.00.01, 08.00.05. – M., 2001. – 53 p.

It is not recommended to quote (even in quotes) text screens – it is better to use paraphrases (rephrase the source text) with the obligatory reference to the thesis. For the abundant quoting of alien dissidents creates in readers (reviewers, opponents, expert commissions and members of the dissertation) the opinion that the dissertation work does not carry any original ideas and is not an independent scientific and qualification study. Therefore, it is better to find the articles of the dissertation scholars indicated at the end of the dissertation abstracts and quote them with reference.


How to cite in APA style?

Traditionally, the advantages and benefits of the Internet include the combination of three possibilities: a universal transmission medium, a publicly accessible repository of information and unique forms of communication. New sites, information services, electronic information resources on the Internet appear so quickly that they make it difficult to describe and link to them. Indicate the date of its creation or include an e-mail address as the most reliable means seems to us to be a reasonable and necessary element of competent design of a modern bibliography. In view of the existing and increasing need to include references to these sources both in the preparation of publications for foreign publications, consider the current foreign practice of electronic bibliographic references.

It should be noted that in the USA and other foreign countries there are various styles of links to sources of information that already include rules for electronic sources. The most common systems are the management of the APA (American Psychological Association) – in the social sciences and guidance, which are under discussion in terms of links to electronic resources.

Let us consider the design of the list of references to electronic sources, or APA citation dissertations of information (resources) in APA style, which are absent today in the domestic bibliographic apparatus, and discuss their possible combination with domestic systems.

Both bibliographic systems, as we know domestic rules and GOSTs, consist of two elements – the APA citation in the dissertations, and the list of sources at the end of the document. The difference in the citation in the text by APA and MLA systems is an indication of the name of the author (s) or the name of the document, organization, year of publication (not in MLA) and the page in parentheses. For example, (Wilkinson, 1998, 36) – APA style. In the bibliographic system most frequently used in domestic scientific texts, this is the sequence number of the source in the bibliographic list in square brackets. The logic of the rules for the design of electronic sources in the APA is interesting and justified; if necessary, links to inaccessible data, such as personal emails, limit their quoting only in the text indicating the date. For example, (personal communication, October 6, 1997) – despite the principle of the APA system: “not to provide data that cannot be verified” [Markel, 1998, p.285].